Canaries changing colors
Many animals are sexually dimorphic, with different phenotypes in males and females. To identify the genetic basis of sexual differences in bird coloration, Gazda et al. investigated red coloration in mosaic canaries and related species (see the Perspective by Chen). Using a combination of genetic crosses, genomic mapping, transcriptomics, and comparative analyses, the authors show that trans-regulation of the carotenoid-processing gene BCO2 is involved in sexual dichromatism. Although such variation in coloration among the sexes is common, particularly in birds, there are few candidate genes known to be involved. This study helps to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the evolution of dichromatism and may aid in uncovering sexually selected traits.
Sexual dichromatism, a difference in coloration between males and females, may be due to sexual selection for ornamentation and mate choice. Here, we show that carotenoid-based dichromatism in mosaic canaries, a hybrid phenotype that arises in offspring of the sexually dichromatic red siskin and monochromatic canaries, is controlled by the gene that encodes the carotenoid-cleaving enzyme β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2). Dichromatism in mosaic canaries is explained by differential carotenoid degradation in the integument, rather than sex-specific variation in physiological functions such as pigment uptake or transport. Transcriptome analyses suggest that carotenoid degradation in the integument might be a common mechanism contributing to sexual dichromatism across finches. These results suggest that differences in ornamental coloration between sexes can evolve through simple molecular mechanisms controlled by genes of major effect.